Evidence – Discovery – Virginia
Note: This summary is not intended to be an all inclusive summary of discovery law in Virginia, but does include basic and other information.
Discovery: A procedure designed to allow disclosure of information between Plaintiffs and Defendants. Written questions, oral questioning, document production and admissions requests are generally allowed. Discovery was designed to to prevent trial by ambush.
Interrogatories: Written questions from Plaintiff to Defendant, or from Defendant to Plaintiff. The questions are mailed to the Plaintiff, Defendant or the attorney for response in writing. The answers or responses are usually due between 20-30 days.
Deposition: A procedure where verbal questions are asked a Plaintiff or Defendant for immediate response. Depositions are usually recorded by a court reporter, who swears the person to tell the truth before questioning begins.
Production of Documents: The method of obtaining documents from the other party relevant to the case such as all documents a party intends to introduce at trial.
Requests for Admissions: Written questions where you request the other party to admit or deny some relevant fact.
Objections: Objections may be made to all discovery questions if the questions are not relevant, or likely to lead to the discovery of relevant evidence.
Civil Procedure Rules: Virtually all states have adopted a version of civil procedure rules which include rules dealing with discovery.
Virginia Rules of Civil Procedure
The Virginia Rules of Discovery are contained in the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia. These rules apply in civil cases in both actions at law and in suits of equity before the circuit court. The discovery rules also apply in divorce actions.
Discovery Methods: Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the followings methods: depositions upon oral examinations or written questions, written interrogatories, production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, physical and mental examinations, and requests for admission. Rule 4:1(a)
Scope: Parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action. Rule 4:1(b)
Experts: A party may through interrogatories require another party to identify each person whom the other party expects to call as an expert witness at trial. Rule 4:1(b)(4)
Sequence and Timing of Discovery: Unless the court orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence. Rule 4:1(d)
Supplementation of Responses: A party who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete when made is under no duty to supplement his response to information acquired, except as follows: the party is under a duty seasonably to supplement his response with respect to a question concerning the identity and location of persons having knowledge of discoverable matters and the identity of each person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial. A party is also under a duty to amend a prior response if the party knows the response was incorrect when made or he knows the response though correct when made is no longer true. Rule 4:1(e)
Before Whom Depositions May Be Taken: Within this Commonwealth depositions may be taken before any person authorized by law to administer oaths. Rule 4:3(a)
Within another state, or within a territory or insular possession subject to the dominion of the United States, depositions shall be taken before an officer authorized to take depositions in the jurisdiction wherein the witness may be, or before any commissioner appointed by the Governor of this Commonwealth. Rule 4:3(b)
Depositions may be taken in a foreign country before any American minister, secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice-consul, or commercial agent of the United States, or before the mayor or other magistrate of any city, town or corporation. 4:3(d)
Stipulations: Unless the court orders otherwise, the parties may by written stipulation provide that depositions be taken at any time, any place, and upon any notice. Rule 4:4
Any party may serve upon another party written interrogatories to be answered by the party served. Each interrogatory shall be answered fully in writing and under oath. Unless ordered by the court, a party may serve no more than a total of thirty interrogatories. Rule 4:8
Any party may serve upon another party a request to produce certain documents, not privileged, to be inspected and copied. Rule 4:9
Physical and Mental Examination of Persons
When the mental or physical condition (including the blood group) of a party, is in controversy, the court in which the action is pending may order the party to submit to a physical or mental examination by a physician or to produce for examination the person in his custody or control. Rule 4:10
Requests for Admissions
A party may serve upon any other party a written request for the admission, of the truth of any matters within the scope of Rule 26.02 set forth in the request, including the genuineness of any documents described in the request. Rule 4:11
A party, upon reasonable notice to the other parties may apply for an order compelling discovery. If a party refuses to allow inspection or fails to answer a question propounded or submitted under Rule 30 or 31, the discovering party may move for an order compelling an answer. Rule 4:12
Domestic Actions Discovery Notes
If you require extra time to respond to discovery, you should ask the other side for an extension in writing. It may also be necessary to enter an order granting the extension to protect your rights.
Discovery questions are limited in number so select the most important questions to ask the other side. Don’t waste your requests writing questions that you already know the answer to.
Related Virginia Legal Forms
- Discovery Interrogatories for Divorce Proceeding for either Plaintiff or Defendant
- Discovery Interrogatories from Defendant to Plaintiff with Production Requests
- Discovery Interrogatories from Plaintiff to Defendant with Production Requests
- Interrogatories to Defendant for Motor Vehicle Accident
- Interrogatories to Plaintiff for Motor Vehicle Occurrence